L’holocauste de Dresde, un crime impuni. Des unités de service de secours de la région environnante se précipitaient dans la ville détruite pour apporter leur aide. [35] The bombing of Dresden was a Western plan, but the Soviets were told in advance about the operation. Elles peuvent être employées pour nettoyer une zone, par exemple à des fins de déforestation du camp ennemi, comme ce fut le cas lor… Les états-majors pensèrent que la ville servirait de nœud logistique pour ce transfert[4]. Ainsi la RAF ne disposait même pas de carte précise de la ville. [157] This provoked an outrage in the German parliament and triggered responses from the media. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A Dresden police report written shortly after the attacks reported that the old town and the inner eastern suburbs had been engulfed in a single fire that had destroyed almost 12,000 dwellings. [36][44], In the raid, major industrial areas in the suburbs, which stretched for miles, were not targeted. Au cours de la guerre froide, les préjugés idéologiques empêchèrent une étude objective du déroulement des événements. Voici 70 ans, du 13 au 15 février 1945, la ville de Dresde fut largement détruite par un raid aérien massif de bombardiers anglais et américains. "Le 7 mai 1945, juste avant la capitulation allemande, Patton eut une conférence en Autriche avec le Secrétaire américain à la Guerre Robert Patterson. His book is not only good literature. If clouds obscured Dresden but Chemnitz was clear, Chemnitz was the target. The second was on 17 April, when 580 B-17s dropped 1,554 tons of high-explosive bombs and 165 tons of incendiaries. The Wehrmacht's main command post in the Taschenbergpalais, 19 military hospitals and a number of less significant military facilities were also destroyed. We saw terrible things: cremated adults shrunk to the size of small children, pieces of arms and legs, dead people, whole families burnt to death, burning people ran to and fro, burnt coaches filled with civilian refugees, dead rescuers and soldiers, many were calling and looking for their children and families, and fire everywhere, everywhere fire, and all the time the hot wind of the firestorm threw people back into the burning houses they were trying to escape from. A 120 kilomètres de là… Il y a 70 ans, Prague, victime collatérale du bombardement de Dresde | Radio Prague International L'United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) et la Royal Air Force (RAF) utilisèrent des bombes incendiaires notamment à la thermite [7] Even after the main firebombing, there were two further raids on the Dresden railway yards by the USAAF. Pour son coprésident, Tino Chrupalla, le véritable bilan serait d'« environ 100 000 victimes »[30]. Il a été demandé au service des archives de la ville de Dresde en juin 2013 l'accès aux documents de travail, il a été répondu qu'ils sont bloqués pour trente ans, et les témoignages pour 80 ans. Hence any assistance to the Soviets on the Eastern Front could shorten the war. A 120 kilomètres de là… It was overdone, it was excessive and is to be regretted enormously," but, "A war crime is a very specific thing which international lawyers argue about all the time and I would not be prepared to commit myself nor do I see why I should. It also contained all of the worst from Germany during the Nazi period. Bombardement de Dresde - Le bombardement de Dresde eut lieu du au , selon les principes de la directive du ministère de l'Aviation du gouvernement britannique sur le bombardement de zone du , devenue avec l'USAAF la en 1943. Select Your Cookie Preferences. The largest, beneath the main railway station, was housing 6,000 refugees. [7], During his post-war interrogation, Albert Speer, Minister of Armaments and War Production for the Third Reich, said that Dresden's industrial recovery from the bombings was rapid. Sir Arthur Harris affirma que la décision avait été prise à un échelon très supérieur à lui[39]. Sammen med overskærmen leveres også 4 styk balanceringe.Disse ringe kan du anvende på de andre 4 overskærme. The first group to arrive over the target was the 401st, but it missed the city centre and bombed Dresden's southeastern suburbs, with bombs also landing on the nearby towns of Meissen and Pirna. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 7 novembre 2020 à 17:25. [136], A report by the U.S. Air Force Historical Division (USAFHD) analyzed the circumstances of the raid and concluded that it was militarily necessary and justified, based on the following points:[7], The first point regarding the legitimacy of the raid depends on two claims: first, that the railyards subjected to American precision bombing were an important logistical target, and that the city was also an important industrial centre. "[146], According to historian Sönke Neitzel, "it is difficult to find any evidence in German documents that the destruction of Dresden had any consequences worth mentioning on the Eastern Front. We saw the burning street, the falling ruins and the terrible firestorm. Dead and dying people were trampled upon, luggage was left or snatched up out of our hands by rescuers. The destruction of Dresden remains a serious query against the conduct of Allied bombing. Cette tension politique éclipse les 25 000 victimes de la « tempête de feu », trois jours de bombardement au phosphore (du 13 au 15 février 1945) sur la Florence allemande, dont il ne restera plus que ruines. As one of the directors of the United States Strategic Bombing Survey, formed late in the war by the American Office of Strategic Services to assess the results of the aerial bombardments of Nazi Germany, he wrote: "The incredible cruelty of the attack on Dresden when the war had already been won—and the death of children, women, and civilians—that was extremely weighty and of no avail". Meilleur commentaire critique . [21], Plans for a large, intense aerial bombing of Berlin and the other eastern cities had been discussed under the code name Operation Thunderclap in mid-1944, but were shelved on 16 August. Le chercheur allemand Jörg Friedrich fait état de 40 000 morts[26]. The phrase "worth the bones of one British grenadier" echoed Otto von Bismarck's: "The whole of the Balkans is not worth the bones of a single Pomeranian grenadier". At a press briefing held by the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force two days after the raids, British Air Commodore Colin McKay Grierson told journalists: First of all they (Dresden and similar towns) are the centres to which evacuees are being moved. [89], Between 100,000 and 200,000 refugees[90] fleeing westward from advancing Soviet forces were in the city at the time of the bombing. A secondary objective was to disrupt the industrial use of Dresden for munitions manufacture, which American intelligence believed was the case. The Red Army had launched its Silesian Offensives into pre-war German territory. On possède des observations de telles tempêtes de feu pour le bombardement de Coventry par l'Allemagne, celui de Hambourg[36] (opération Gomorrhe), et pour les bombardements atomiques d'Hiroshima et Nagasaki. As Dresden had been largely untouched during the war due to its location, it was one of the few remaining functional rail and communications centres. I efteråret 1944 og i vinteren 1944/45 foregik de allieredes fremrykning væsentligt langsommere end de havde ventet. Allied arguments centre around the existence of a local air defence system and additional ground defences the Germans were constructing in anticipation of Soviet advances. [28] This allowed Sinclair to inform Churchill on 27 January of the Air Staff's agreement that, "subject to the overriding claims" on other targets under the Pointblank Directive, strikes against communications in these cities to disrupt civilian evacuation from the east and troop movement from the west would be made. (, This page was last edited on 17 December 2020, at 16:07. According to him, 600,000 civilians died during the allied bombing of German cities, including 72,000 children. S'ils conviennent aux historiens, les résultats de la Commission historique sont régulièrement remis en cause sur internet, notamment par les nationalistes. [103], One of the journalists asked whether the principal aim of bombing Dresden would be to cause confusion among the refugees or to blast communications carrying military supplies. Alternatively, the report warned that the Germans might hold out until November if they could prevent the Soviets from taking Silesia. It was beyond belief, worse than the blackest nightmare. Altid hurtig levering, 100 dages returret & prisgaranti! [167], The bombing of Dresden is a central theme in the novel Slaughterhouse 5 by Kurt Vonnegut who was a prisoner of war in 1945 in Dresden. den tidligere ejer har ikke kunne finde catifikatet. So many people were horribly burnt and injured. In the end, the only political action the German government took was to exploit it for propaganda purposes. On the morning of 14 February 431 United States Army Air Force bombers of the Eighth Air Force's 1st Bombardment Division were scheduled to bomb Dresden near midday, and the 3rd Bombardment Division were to follow to bomb Chemnitz, while the 2nd Bombardment Division would bomb a synthetic oil plant in Magdeburg. Je prends le train en cours, avant tte chose, bonjour à tt le monde. Some figures from historians include: 18,000+ (but less than 25,000) from Antony Beevor in "The Second World War"; 20,000 from Anthony Roberts in "The Storm of War"; 25,000 from Ian Kershow in "The End"; 25,000–30,000 from Michael Burleigh in "Moral Combat"; 35,000 from Richard J. Evans in "The Third Reich at War: 1939-1945". First among these are the Nazi government's exaggerated claims immediately afterwards,[15][16][17] which drew upon the beauty of the city, its importance as a cultural icon; the deliberate creation of a firestorm; the number of victims; the extent to which it was a necessary military target; and the fact that it was attacked toward the end of the war, raising the question of whether the bombing was needed to hasten the end. Lien en allemand : Outre le rapport final de 96 pages, sont aussi disponibles, toujours en allemand : In March 1945, the German government ordered its press to publish a falsified casualty figure of 200,000 for the Dresden raids, and death tolls as high as 500,000 have been claimed. Why did we burn its people? [45], The Dresden attack was to have begun with a USAAF Eighth Air Force bombing raid on 13 February 1945. They scream and gesticulate with their hands, and then—to my utter horror and amazement—I see how one after the other they simply seem to let themselves drop to the ground. On 8 February 1945, the Red Army crossed the Oder River, with positions just 70 kilometres (43 mi) from Berlin. L'héroïne Johanna survit au bombardement, mais pas sa grande sœur, ce qui fait perdre la raison à sa mère[44]. [51] The attack was to centre on the Ostragehege sports stadium, next to the city's medieval Altstadt (old town), with its congested and highly combustible timbered buildings. [37] Nonetheless, according to some historians, the contribution of Dresden to the German war effort may not have been as significant as the planners thought. President Franklin Roosevelt (1882-1945), British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (1874-1965) and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin (1878-1953)met at Yalta in the USSR and compromised on their visions of the postwar world. In that sense it is an absolutely exemplary tragedy for the horrors of 20th century warfare and a symbol of destruction".[129]. [112][113][114] This was completed on 1 April 1945: ...the moment has come when the question of the so called 'area-bombing' of German cities should be reviewed from the point of view of our own interests. [73], On 15 February, the 1st Bombardment Division's primary target—the Böhlen synthetic oil plant near Leipzig—was obscured by clouds, so its groups diverted to their secondary target, Dresden. PH 2/1 Bombardementskrone Glas Overskærm m Balanceringe Her har du mulighed for at købe en ny glas overskærm til din PH 2/1 Bombardementskrone. He also reconstructed timelines with the result that strafing would have been almost impossible due to lack of time and fuel. [94] Goebbels is reported to have wept with rage for twenty minutes after he heard the news of the catastrophe, before launching into a bitter attack on Hermann Göring, the commander of the Luftwaffe: "If I had the power I would drag this cowardly good-for-nothing, this Reich marshal, before a court. At 21:59 the Local Air Raid Leadership confirmed that the bombers were in the area of Dresden-Pirna. Dans la nuit du 13 au 14 février 1945, la ville de Dresde est victime du plus brutal bombardement aérien de la Seconde Guerre mondiale (à l'exception de Tokyo, Hiroshima et Nagasaki). [125], In 2003, a petition in support of reconstructing the Neumarkt area was signed by nearly 68,000 people, amounting to 15% of the entire electorate. See reviews & details on a wide selection of Blu-ray & DVDs, both new & used. Berceau du mouvement xénophobe Pegida, Dresde est une ville politiquement très divisée. The uncertainty this introduced is thought to amount to no more than 100. Série "Toute L’histoire" par Frida samedi 11 mai 2013 7%. As a centre of military and munitions production, Coventry suffered some of the worst attacks on any British city at the hands of the Luftwaffe during the Coventry Blitzes of 1940 and 1941, which killed over 1,200 civilians and destroyed its cathedral.[119]. Voici 70 ans, du 13 au 15 février 1945, la ville de Dresde fut largement détruite par un raid aérien massif de bombardiers anglais et américains. The industrial plants of Dresden played no significant role in German industry at this stage in the war". It is also truthful. There were very few public air raid shelters. A party's representative, Jürgen Gansel, described the Dresden raids as "mass murder," and "Dresden's holocaust of bombs". Rien n'indiquait un rôle militaire décisif pour cette ville ancienne, qui avait, pour cette raison, été épargnée pendant cinq ans. During the Second World War, Britain was on summer time and. Far-right politicians in Germany have sparked a great deal of controversy by promoting the term "Bombenholocaust" ("holocaust by bomb") to describe the raids. Le recensement des survivants restés sur place, selon le décompte du 30 avril 1945, deux mois après l'attaque, fait état de 368 519 personnes[21]. [1] The bombing and the resulting firestorm destroyed more than 1,600 acres (6.5 km2) of the city centre. It first tried to do so in the Fourth Geneva Convention of 1949, but the UK and the US would not agree, since to do so would have been an admission of guilt for their systematic "area bombing" of German and Japanese civilians. The story itself is told through the eyes of Billy Pilgrim, a clear stand-in for Vonnegut himself. Le 13 Février à 09h40 quand les Mosquitos commencèrent les plans de repérage à l'aide de fusées éclairantes, il y avait dans la cité environ 500.000 réfugiés. [7] La ville de Dresde partagea ainsi le même sort que Berlin et Breslau, qui furent réduites en cendres, mais essentiellement par l’artillerie et les chars soviétiques. Commentaire Signaler un abus. The groups that followed the 303rd (92nd, 306th, 379th, 384th and 457th) also found Dresden obscured by clouds, and they too used H2X. I do not personally regard the whole of the remaining cities of Germany as worth the bones of one British Grenadier. La ligne de chemin de fer allant à Pirna. [159][160] In 1995, the fiftieth anniversary of the bombing, Anti-Germans praised the bombing on the grounds that so many of the city's civilians had supported Nazism. When plans for the rebuilding of Dresden's Frauenkirche became certain, the (GHND) began calls for the reconstruction of the historic buildings that surrounded it. It was Stokes' questions in the House of Commons that were in large part responsible for the shift in the UK against this type of raid. [56] Frederick Taylor writes that the Germans could see that a large enemy bomber formation—or what they called "ein dicker Hund" (lit: a fat dog, a "major thing")—was approaching somewhere in the east. It is connected with German bands and Dresden shepherdesses. [85], According to official German report Tagesbefehl (Order of the Day) no. After the war, and again after German reunification, great efforts were made to rebuild some of Dresden's former landmarks, such as the Frauenkirche, the Semperoper (the Saxony state opera house) and the Zwinger Palace (the latter two were rebuilt before reunification). In 1956, Dresden entered a twin-town relationship with Coventry. Søgning på “bombardement” i Den Danske Ordbog. [83] The same report said that the raids had destroyed 24 banks, 26 insurance buildings, 31 stores and retail houses, 640 shops, 64 warehouses, 2 market halls, 31 large hotels, 26 public houses, 63 administrative buildings, 3 theatres, 18 cinemas, 11 churches, 6 chapels; 5 other cultural buildings, 19 hospitals including auxiliary, overflow hospitals, and private clinics, 39 schools, 5 consulates, the zoo, the waterworks, the railways, 19 postal facilities, 4 tram facilities, and 19 ships and barges. Bottomley's list included oil plants, tank and aircraft factories and the cities of Berlin and Dresden. Warning! Far more than any other military action that preceded the actual occupation of Germany itself, these attacks left the German people with a solid lesson in the disadvantages of war. They fainted and then burnt to cinders. Anniversaire du bombardement de Dresde Un crime de guerre des alliés anglo-américains, prélude à la guerre froide – Dougal MacDonald – Dans la nuit du 13 au 14 février 1945, le commandement des forces de bombardement de la Royal Air Force a effectué deux bombardements dévastateurs sur la ville allemande de Dresde. The bombing of Dresden was a British-American aerial bombing attack on the city of Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony, during World War II.In four raids between 13 and 15 February 1945, 722 heavy bombers of the British Royal Air Force (RAF) and 527 of the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) dropped more than 3,900 tons of high-explosive bombs and incendiary devices on the city. But to do so was always repugnant and now that the Germans are beaten anyway we can properly abstain from proceeding with these attacks. It was dark and all of us tried to leave this cellar with inconceivable panic. Les historiens sont unanimes pour souligner la beauté de la ville. Utile. Insane fear grips me and from then on I repeat one simple sentence to myself continuously: "I don't want to burn to death". [96], On 25 February, a new leaflet with photographs of two burned children was released under the title "Dresden—Massacre of Refugees," stating that 200,000 had died. H2X aiming caused the groups to bomb with a wide dispersal over the Dresden area. Suddenly, I saw people again, right in front of me. I den henseende ville et bombardement kunne ramme meget industri. [109][110], Having been given a paraphrased version of Churchill's memo by Bottomley, on 29 March, Air Chief Marshal Arthur Harris wrote to the Air Ministry:[111], ...in the past we were justified in attacking German cities. I am that person. Le bombardement de Dresde eut lieu du 13 au 15 février 1945, selon les principes de la directive du ministère de l'Aviation du gouvernement britannique sur le bombardement de zone du 14 février 1942, devenue avec l'USAAF la directive de Casablanca (en) en 1943.