[377] By 1 March, officials from the UN High Commissioner for Refugees had confirmed allegations of discrimination against sub-Saharan Africans who were held in dangerous conditions in the no-man's-land between Tunisia and Libya. They took more than 100 children whose whereabouts we do not know — maybe to Europe, to be evangelised. [207][208], In a questionnaire 259 refugee women reported that they had been raped by Gaddafi's soldiers, however the accounts of these women could not be independently verified as the psychologist who conducted the questionnaire said that "she had lost contact with them". "[256], In response to the use of force against protesters, a number of senior Libyan public officials either renounced the Gaddafi government or resigned from their positions. [357] In early March, the fighting across Libya meant that more than a million people fleeing or inside the country needed humanitarian aid. That same day, military operations began, with US forces and one British submarine firing cruise missiles. He later stated that international community needs "less talk and more action" to stop the violence. [99] Some Libyans said that they had found abandoned torture chambers and devices that had been used in the past. [319][320] Some civilian Gaddafi supporters remaining in the city reported that women and children had been killed in crossfire or fired upon by rebel forces. On February 16, 2011 Libyan protesters clashed with police in an anti-government demonstration inspired by the uprisings that brought down the rulers of Libya's neighbors, Egypt and Tunisia. [275] He also stated that he will support any form of government that Libya will choose after Gaddafi including a constitutional monarchy. [295][296][297], From the beginning of the intervention, the coalition of Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Italy, Norway, Qatar, Spain, UK and US[298][299][300][301][302] expanded to 17 states. [54] However, there was no independent verification of the Health Minister's statement and, one month later, the NTC reduced the estimated number of killed to 25,000. [31] Colonel Muammar Gaddafi sent troops and tanks to break up the rebellion. Many tens of thousands were still trapped on the Libyan side of the frontier. In the aftermath of the civil war, a low-level insurgency by former Gaddafi loyalists continued. Everybody is terrified because of the armed militia. Khamis Gaddafi † actors involved, casualties, date, location, etc. [196] In Tripoli, "death squads" of mercenaries and Revolutionary Committees members reportedly patrolled the streets and shot people who tried to take the dead off the streets or gather in groups. These elections were planned to coincide with the Jamahiriya's usual periodic elections for the Popular Committees, Basic People's Committees, Basic People's Congresses, and General People's Congresses, in 2010. Malian government officials told BBC that it is hard to stop the flow of fighters from Mali to Libya. [215] His brother Ismail al-Salabi, leader of the Islamist "February 17 Katiba" rebel faction, was believed to be financially backed from Qatar. It also adopted Law 37, prohibiting the publication of "propaganda" criticising the revolution, questioning the authority of Libya's governing organs, or praising Muammar Gaddafi, his family, his government, or the ideas of the Green Book.[334]. Some evacuations were successful to Malta or via land borders to Egypt or Tunisia; other attempts were hindered by tarmac damage at Benghazi's airport or refusals of permission to land in Tripoli. [176], In the days leading up to the conflict, Gaddafi called for a rally against the government that was to be held on 17 February. Some army personnel also joined the protesters; they then seized the local radio station. [62], The Libyan government alleged that the armed rebellion was composed of "criminal gangs and mercenaries. Libya's GDP per capita (PPP), human development index, and literacy rate were better than in Egypt and Tunisia, whose Arab Spring revolutions preceded the outbreak of protests in Libya. You cannot escape [330], Fighting broke out on 3 January 2012, at a building used as intelligence headquarters by the Gaddafi government. The staff of a number of diplomatic missions of Libya have either resigned or condemned the actions of the Gaddafi government. [219] Gaddafi's former Chief of Protocol Nouri Al Mesmari said in an interview with the Al Jazeera that Nigerien, Malian, Chadian and Kenyan mercenaries were among foreign soldiers helping fight the uprising on behalf of Gaddafi. A further UN resolution authorised member states to establish and enforce a no-fly zone over Libya, and to use "all necessary measures" to prevent attacks on civilians,[65] which turned into a bombing campaign by the forces of NATO against military installations and civilian infrastructure of Libya. According to RT.com, rebels abducted five journalists from Russia in April 2011 in Ajdabiya: they reportedly took away the journalists' documents and equipment before releasing them. The government used excessiv… [245], International journalists who attempted to cover the events were attacked by Gaddafi's forces. [119] During the early 1980s, the Revolutionary Committees had considerable power and became a growing source of tension within the Jamihiriya,[120] to the extent that Gaddafi sometimes criticized their effectiveness and excessive repression,[119][120] until the power of the Revolutionary Committees was eventually restricted in the late 1980s. [204][309], Heads of the rebellion reported on 21 August that Gaddafi's son, Saif al-Islam, was under arrest and that they had encircled the leader's compound, suggesting that the war had reached its endgame with an imminent rebel victory. [195], On 19 February, several days after the conflict began, Saif al-Islam Gaddafi announced the creation of a commission of inquiry into the violence, chaired by a Libyan judge, as reported on state television. [75] These unresolved issues led directly to a second civil war in Libya. There were many small protests of about 300-500 people throughout January. In addition, some loyalist forces crossed into Niger, though the escape attempts exploded into violence when detected by Nigerien troops. Dozens of them were arrested. No school. [286][383] The Zuwayya tribe, based in eastern Libya, threatened to cut off oil exports from fields in its part of Libya if Libyan security forces continued attacking demonstrators. He stated, "You know, the armoured militia yesterday, they killed four young boys in Benghazi. [386], The disputed allegations about the Libyan government's use of the Libyan Air Force to strike civilians led to the adoption of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 to create a Libyan no-fly zone on 17 March, though several countries involved in the resolution's enforcement have also carried out regular strike missions to degrade the offensive capacity of the Libyan Army and destroy the government's command and control capabilities, effectively acting in de facto support of anti-Gaddafi forces on the ground. [122], Between 13 and 16 January 2011, upset at delays in the building of housing units and over political corruption, protesters in Bayda, Derna, Benghazi and other cities broke into, and occupied, housing that the government had been building. 9 Nov. [307], In June 2011, Muammar Gaddafi and his son Saif al-Islam announced that they were willing to hold elections and that Gaddafi would step aside if he lost. [281][284][285] By the end of February, Gaddafi's government had lost control of a significant part of Libya, including the major cities of Misrata and Benghazi, and the important harbours at Ra's Lanuf and Brega. [189] In multiple incidents, Gaddafi's forces were documented using ambulances in their attacks. [171] Rebels denied this. Guerre en Libye : la chronologie des ... ainsi que trois petits-enfants du dirigeant libyen. "[76] He abolished the Libyan Constitution of 1951, considering it a neocolonial document. [86] A broadly secular society was imposed. [120], The Green Book, which Gaddafi authored in the 1970s, was for years the principal text of political education. The protests are thought to have been inspired by the successful uprising in Tunisia and Egypt. "[218] The Qatari banks involved in talks with delegates from the National Transitional Council were Qatar Islamic Bank and Qatar National Bank. Obama approves airstrikes against Libya, March 19, 2011. Despite this, Libya's Human Development Index in 2010 was the highest in Africa and greater than that of Saudi Arabia. The Libyan Army consisted of about 50,000 personnel. The rebels won the battle and took control of the city. Two Libyan Air Force colonels each flew their Mirage F1 fighter jets to Malta and requested asylum, after being ordered to carry out airstrikes against civilian protesters in Benghazi. Estimates have been widely varied. [133] Social media played a central role in organizing the opposition. [113], The Libyan Arab Jamahiriya's delegation to the United Nations issued a report about human rights in Libya. [62] Human Rights Watch has countered that while many foreign migrants were erroneously accused of fighting with Gaddafi, there were also genuine mercenaries from several nations who participated in the conflict. In the countryside of France, two groups of boys from the rural villages of Longeverne and Velran are in constant war against each other. No hospital. Al-quaeda started bombing. Separately, the ICRC advised it was handing over its operations at the Choucha Camp to the Tunisian Red Crescent. Gaddafi's senior advisor attempted to reject the idea by tweeting his resignation. Saif al-Arab Gaddafi †[22] The report suggested that Tawergha, which was dominated by black Libyans, may have been the subject of ethnic cleansing provoked by a combination of racism and bitterness on the part of Misratan fighters over the town's support for Gaddafi during the siege of Misrata. [98][99] Except for housing improvements and the Great Manmade River, little infrastructure was developed in this region for many years. [163] Former Jamahiriya Justice Minister Mustafa Abdul Jalil said in February that the new government would prepare for elections and they could be held in three months. A total of 1,650 cartons of fortified date bars (equivalent of 13.2 metric tons) had also been provided to supplement these meals. Gaddafi vowed to hunt them down and "clean Libya house by house" until all rebels are gone. From 1969 until 1975 standards of living, life expectancy and literacy grew rapidly. ), reported that between 1,914 and 3,466 people were killed during the 2011 fighting. [154], An anonymous hip hop artist called Ibn Thabit gave a voice to "disenfranchised Libyans looking for a non-violent way to express their political will". "[200] Gaddafi's military commanders also reportedly executed soldiers who refused to fire on protesters. Saif al-Islam stated that the elections could be held within three months and transparency would be guaranteed through international observers. Mustafa Jalil[43](Commander-in-Chief) Omar El-Hariri[44] Jalal al-Digheily Khalifa Haftar Abdelhakim Belhaj Abdul Fatah Younis † Suleiman Mahmoud[45] Hamad bin Ali Al Attiyah, 17,000 defected soldiers and volunteers[48][failed verification] [95] More than 16% of families had no members earning a stable income, and 43.3% had just one. THE ROLE OF DIGITAL MEDIA. and on 22 February, The Economist described the protests as an "uprising that is trying to reclaim Libya from the world's longest-ruling autocrat". [215] Cleric Ali al-Sallabi allegedly served as a primary "conduit for Qatari humanitarian aid, money and arms" and helped to direct more than a dozen of the Qatari shipments. [93] Libya's corruption perception index in 2010 was 2.2, ranking 146th out of 178 countries, worse than that of Egypt (ranked 98th) and Tunisia (ranked 59th). [citation needed] On 10 March, the president of the ICRC Jakob Kellenberger warned of the increase in the intensity of fighting and in the number of casualties arriving at hospitals in Ajdabiya and Misrata. [312], Early the following day, 24 August, Gaddafi broadcast an address from a Tripoli local radio station in which he said the withdrawal from Bab al-Azizia had been a "tactical" move. [81], Both Gaddafi and the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, however, officially denied that he held any power, but said that he was merely a symbolic figurehead. [142][143] The novelist Idris Al-Mesmari was arrested hours after giving an interview with Al Jazeera about the police reaction to protests. Oil Minister Shukri Ghanem and Foreign Minister Moussa Koussa fled Libya, with the latter defecting to the UK. [231], A witness stated that mercenaries were more willing to kill demonstrators than Libyan forces were, and earned a reputation as among the most brutal forces employed by the government. Some top government officials opposed the plan, saying that it would "wreak havoc" in the economy by "fanning inflation and spurring capital flight". The resolution also referred the actions of the government to the International Criminal Court for investigation,[64] and an arrest warrant for Gaddafi was issued on 27 June. "[62], Gaddafi forces reportedly surrounded themselves with civilians to protect themselves and key military sites like the Bab al-Azizia compound in Tripoli from air strikes. As a train roars through a wall Libye -- 1969-2011 Topic : Libye -- 1969-2011: Source file : RAMEAU: Field : Histoire du reste du monde: Variant subject headings : Jamahiriya arabe libyenne: The time : ... Libye -- 2011 (Guerre civile) Politique et gouvernement -- Libye -- 1969-2011. [159], The National Transitional Council (Arabic: المجلس الوطني الانتقالي‎) was established on 27 February to consolidate efforts for change in the rule of Libya. [94] One paper speculated that such a situation created a broader contrast between good education, high demand for democracy, and the government's practices (perceived corruption, political system, supply of democracy). [203], In June 2011, a more detailed investigation by Amnesty International found that many of the allegations against Gaddafi and the Libyan state turned out to be false or to lack any credible evidence, saying that rebels at times appeared to have knowingly made false claims or manufactured evidence. Legal qualification of an armed conflict determines which rules of international humanitarian law apply to the conduct of the parties during that conflict. The report said that the country was founded on direct people's democracy that guaranteed direct exercise of authority by all citizens through the people's congresses. Fleeing the violence of Tripoli by road, as many as 4,000 refugees were crossing the Libya–Tunisia border daily during the first days of the uprising. Confess. [199], During the siege of Misrata in May 2011, Amnesty International reported "horrifying" tactics such as "indiscriminate attacks that have led to massive civilian casualties, including use of heavy artillery, rockets and cluster bombs in civilian areas and sniper fire against residents. We will not permit that at all, and we call on Libyans to voice their issues through existing channels, even if it is to call for the downfall of the government. [253], In June 2011, Amnesty International criticized "Western media coverage" which "has from the outset presented a very one-sided view of the logic of events, portraying the protest movement as entirely peaceful and repeatedly suggesting that the regime's security forces were unaccountably massacring unarmed demonstrators who presented no security challenge. [243] Several residents reported that cellphone service was down, and even landline phone service was sporadic. The victim's body showed signs of torture. [183] The exact same day, the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting reported that the International Criminal Court estimated 10,000 had been killed. The Hamza Brigade fought for Gaddafi against the Rebels from 24 February to 12 March. [129] In early February, Gaddafi, on behalf of the Jamahiriya, met with political activists, journalists and media figures and warned them that they would be held responsible if they disturbed the peace or created chaos in Libya. Rap, hip hop and traditional music, alongside other genres, played a big role in encouraging dissent against Gaddafi's government. [118], Dissent was illegal under Law 75 of 1973, and in 1974, Gaddafi asserted that anyone guilty of founding a political party would be executed. Libya's Jamahiriya News Agency reported that the detained men were part of a "foreign network (and were) trained to damage Libya's stability, the safety of its citizens and national unity. In general, the normative framework applicable to international conflicts is broader and more detailed than the sum of rules that apply in conflicts not of an international character. A New York Times online article also comments that "it seems that plenty of the black Africans captured as mercenaries were never actually involved in the fight". [254] Amnesty International cited claims that Gaddafi had placed his tanks next to civilian facilities, using them as shields. [162] The council began to refer to itself as the Libyan Republic and by March had a website. [188], In a 17 March 2011 interview, shortly before the military intervention, Muammar Gaddafi's son and heir apparent Saif al-Islam Gaddafi said that "armed militia" fighters in Benghazi were killing children and terrorizing the population. In early May 2012, it passed its most sweeping measures to date, granting immunity to former rebel fighters for acts committed during the civil war and ordering that all detainees accused of fighting for Gaddafi should be tried or released by 12 July 2012. Libyan security forces fired live ammunition into the armed protests. [93], An estimated 13% of Libyan citizens were unemployed. Our revenge will catch you The organization stated that "It is reasonable to fear that he has, in fact, decided to largely eliminate, wherever he still can, Libyan citizens who stood up against his regime and furthermore, to systematically and indiscriminately repress civilians. While most agree that the intensity of the fighting and the organization of the insurgents quickly rose to the level required for the existence of a non-international armed conflict under Common Article 3 of the 1949 Geneva Conventions,[345][346] the exact date when these conditions were considered fulfilled ranges from late February[347] to 10 March 2011. [127][128], In late January, Jamal al-Hajji, a writer, political commentator and accountant, "call[ed] on the Internet for demonstrations to be held in support of greater freedoms in Libya" inspired by the Tunisian and Egyptian revolutions. The Rebels' launched a counter-offensive on March 27 that lasted until April 1. He also promised that international monitors would be included to ensure fair elections. NATO/Libya : Allies Stress Their Unity of Objective, but Fail to Resolve all Their Differences In: EUROPE DIPLOMACY & DEFENCE, no. A provisional refugee camp set up at Ras Ajdir with a capacity for 10,000 was overflowing with an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 refugees. "[114], In 1988, Gaddafi criticized the "excesses" he blamed on the Revolutionary Councils, stating that "they deviated, harmed, tortured" and that "the true revolutionary does not practise repression.

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