While flight may have saved lives in the short-term, in the long run it often proved catastrophic. Christian retained his German possessions of Schleswig and Holstein, in return for relinquishing Bremen and Verden, and abandoning support for the German Protestants. [45], With Saxony dominating the Upper Saxon Circle and Brandenburg the Lower, both kreis had remained neutral during the campaigns in Bohemia and the Palatinate. Frederick fled Bohemia and the revolt collapsed. [77] In 1640, the French captured Arras, and over-ran the rest of Artois, while protests against heavy taxes led to revolts in Portugal and Catalonia. Le 20 mai 1631, le comte de Pappenheim et le comte de Tilly s'emparent de la ville. [102], The settlement failed to achieve its stated intention of achieving a 'universal peace'; Mazarin insisted on excluding the Burgundian Circle from the treaty of Münster, allowing France to continue its campaign against Spain in the Low Countries, a war that continued until the 1659 Treaty of the Pyrenees. [108], Parish records show regular outbreaks of these were common for decades prior to 1618, but the conflict greatly accelerated their spread. Car cette guerre de religion se mue en une lutte de pouvoir sans merci entre puissances européennes. The French candidate, Charles I Gonzaga, was confirmed as Duke of Mantua; although Richelieu's representative, Cardinal Mazarin, agreed to evacuate Pinerolo, it was later secretly returned under an agreement with Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy. [41], Spanish chief minister Olivares correctly interpreted this as an invitation to open negotiations, and in return for an Anglo-Spanish alliance offered to restore Frederick to his Rhineland possessions. 17th century Europe was a highly structured and socially conservative society, and their lack of enthusiasm was due to the implications of removing a legally elected ruler, regardless of religion. Trois décennies de massacres et de pillage : la guerre de Trente Ans fut une catastrophe démographique qui a longtemps hanté l'Allemagne. James responded to this attack on his son-in-law by sending naval forces to threaten Spanish possessions in the Americas and the Mediterranean, and announced he would declare war if Spinola had not withdrawn his troops by spring 1621. These actions were greeted with approval by his domestic critics, who considered his pro-Spanish policy a betrayal of the Protestant cause. [46], As Duke of Holstein, Christian IV was also a member of the Lower Saxon circle, while Denmark's economy relied on the Baltic trade and tolls from traffic through the Øresund. Le 23 mai 1618, la révolte des nobles tchèques contre la monarchie des Habsbourg et la restauration du catholicisme en Bohême lance la guerre de trente ans. Ferdinand still resisted signing, but after France gained a crushing victory over Spain at Lens in August, and with Swedish troops attacking Prague, he finally did so on 24 October 1648. [29], The Jesuit educated Ferdinand once claimed he would rather see his lands destroyed than tolerate heresy for a single day. [115] The death toll may have improved living standards for the survivors; one study shows wages in Germany increased by 40% in real terms between 1603 and 1652. In 1635, Ferdinand made peace with his German opponents by accepting their autonomy; in return, they dissolved the Heilbronn and Catholic Leagues. Brandenburg-Prussia (1631–1635)[note 1] An overland route connecting Habsburg possessions in Italy to Flanders, it allowed him to move troops and supplies by road, rather than sea where the Dutch navy held the advantage. [25] Some historians who view the war primarily as an international conflict argue this marks the beginning of the conflict, since Spain and Austria backed the Catholic candidate, France and the Dutch Republic the Protestant. Delivering these commitments required his election as Emperor, which was not guaranteed; one alternative was Maximilian of Bavaria, who opposed the increase of Spanish influence in an area he considered his own, and tried to create a coalition with Saxony and the Palatinate to support his candidacy. Luc Rugamba . Les termes « justice de Magdeburg » et « pitié de Magdeburg » ont également longtemps servi de prétexte aux protestants pour justifier l'exécution de catholiques. Christian IV of Denmark was also Duke of Holstein, and it was in this capacity he joined the war in 1625. In Lorraine, the Three Bishoprics of Metz, Toul and Verdun, occupied by France since 1552, were formally ceded, as were the cities of the Décapole in Alsace, with the exception of Strasbourg and Mulhouse. In the end, the Portuguese retained control of Brazil and Angola, but the Dutch captured the Cape of Good Hope, as well as Portuguese possessions in Malacca, the Malabar Coast, the Moluccas and Ceylon. [24], One outcome was the formation of the Protestant Union, led by Frederick IV and largely composed of states in Southern Germany, to which Maximilian responded by setting up the Catholic League in July 1609. He was supported by Spain, for whom it provided an opportunity to open another front against the Dutch. Pendant la guerre de Trente Ans (1618-1648), l'Alsace servit de champ de bataille aux armées impériales, suédoises, weimariennes et françaises. [82], In May, a Bavarian army under Franz von Mercy destroyed a French detachment at Herbsthausen, but he was defeated and killed at Second Nördlingen in August. [16] Related conflicts include the Eighty Years War, the War of the Mantuan Succession, the Franco-Spanish War, and Portuguese Restoration War. It also provided opportunities for external opponents of the Habsburgs, including the Ottoman Empire and Savoy. L'instabilité politique et religieuse du Saint Empire romain germanique est à l'origine du conflit : pour résister aux progrès de la Réforme catholique, les princes protestants, dont certains ont adhéré au calvinisme, confession non reconnue par la paix d'Augsbourg (1555), se regroupent en une Union évangélique(1608). [104], Historians often refer to the 'General Crisis' of the mid-17th century, a period of sustained conflict in states such as China, the British Isles, Tsarist Russia and the Holy Roman Empire. A few days later, Ferdinand withdrew the Edict and signed the Peace of Prague, dissolving the Heilbronn and Catholic Leagues, and creating a single Imperial army, although Saxony and Bavaria retained control of their own forces. By the time he died in 1631, over 900 people from all levels of society had been executed. [71] Rumours now began circulating Wallenstein was preparing to switch sides, and in February 1634, Ferdinand issued orders for his arrest; on 25th, he was assassinated by one of his officers in Cheb. Celle-ci résiste, bien fortifiée, et attend les renforts du roi de Suède, Gustave-Adolphe.  Habsburg Monarchy Prompted by France, the rebels proclaimed the Catalan Republic in January 1641. The strategic importance of the Duchy of Mantua meant when the direct male line became extinct in December 1627, both powers became involved in the 1628 to 1631 War of the Mantuan Succession. By weakening the Habsburgs while increasing the status of France and Sweden, it led to a new balance of power on the continent. It is suggested the high mortality rate compared to the Wars of the Three Kingdoms in Britain was partly due to the reliance of all sides on foreign mercenaries, often unpaid and required to live off the land. [122] Mainz and Trier also witnessed the mass killing of suspected witches, as did Cologne, where Ferdinand of Bavaria presided over a particularly infamous series of witchcraft trials, including that of Katharina Henot, who was executed in 1627. [15], These figures can be misleading, since Franz calculated the absolute decline in pre and post-war populations, or 'total demographic loss'. Düsseldorf Museum Kunstpalast 02 / 02 La ville protestante espérant l'arrivée des troupes de secours de Gustave Adolphe refusa cependant de capituler. [98], Taken as a whole, the consequences of these two treaties can be divided into the internal political settlement and external territorial changes. [80], After Wittstock, the Swedish army regained the initiative in Germany; at Second Breitenfeld in October 1642, Swedish commander Lennart Torstenson defeated an Imperial army led by Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria and Ottavio Piccolomini. While Spain remained the dominant power in Italy, its reliance on long exterior lines of communication was a potential weakness, especially the Spanish Road; this overland route allowed them to move recruits and supplies from Naples and Lombardy to their army in Flanders. Prolongement des guerres de religion, la guerre de Trente Ans apporta l’Alsace au royaume de France. Opposant les Habsbourg d’Autriche et d’Espagne aux puissances européennes, Danemark, Suède, France, ce conflit majeur de l’Europe moderne a déchiré les états allemands impériaux entre eux. [120], At the same time, Prince-Bishop Johann von Dornheim held a similar series of large-scale witch trials in the nearby Bishopric of Bamberg. [26], In 1609, the Twelve Years' Truce suspended the war between Spain and the Dutch, which was due to expire in 1621. Mais la résolution du conflit témoigne aussi de la vitalité politique du Saint Empire et des États allemands. [128], The benefits of Westphalia for the Swedes proved short-lived. Elle opposa les Habsbourg d’Espagne et du Saint-Empire romain germanique, soutenus par la papauté, aux États allemands protestants frondeurs du Saint-Empire, ainsi qu’à leurs alliés (Danemark, Suède, et France notamment). Il met au point la guerre de siège, les armées marchant de siège en siège, de ville en ville, obtenant la reddition de l’une avant de … More common were disputes such as the 1606 'battle of the flags' in Donauwörth, when the Lutheran majority blocked a Catholic religious procession. This included ambitious Imperial states like Lutheran Saxony and Catholic Bavaria, as well as France, which faced Habsburg territories on its borders in Flanders, Franche-Comté, and the Pyrenees. Il s'agit d'un des plus importants massacres de la guerre de Trente Ans tant par l'étendue des pertes humaines que par la cruauté de la tuerie. Un massacre , une extermination, une guerre oubliée dans les manuels scolaires ! In late August, Gustavus incurred heavy losses in an unsuccessful assault on the town, arguably the greatest blunder in his German campaign. Despite these setbacks, the Habsburg lands suffered less from the war than many others and became a far more coherent bloc with the absorption of Bohemia, and restoration of Catholicism throughout their territories. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 16 avril 2020 à 14:10. In 1556, Habsburg Spain became a separate entity, while retaining Imperial states such as the Duchy of Milan, and interests in Bohemia and Hungary; the two often co-operated, but their objectives did not always align. Maximilian was desperate to end the war he was largely responsible for starting, while Mazarin feared Sweden becoming too strong; on 14 March 1647, Bavaria, Cologne, France, and Sweden signed the Truce of Ulm. [33], Spanish involvement inevitably drew in the Dutch, and potentially France, although the strongly Catholic Louis XIII faced his own Protestant rebels at home and refused to support them elsewhere. Ferdinand paid Wallenstein by letting him confiscate estates, extort ransoms from towns, and allowing his men to plunder the lands they passed through, regardless of whether they belonged to allies or opponents. While less than 2% of the total French state budget, it made up over 25% of the Swedish, and allowed Gustavus to support an army of 36,000. [31], Ferdinand reconfirmed Protestant religious freedoms when elected king of Bohemia in May 1617, but his record in Styria led to the suspicion he was only awaiting a chance to overturn them. [30] Focused on retaking the Netherlands, the Spanish Habsburgs preferred to avoid antagonising Protestants elsewhere, and recognised the dangers associated with Ferdinand's fervent Catholicism, but accepted the lack of alternatives. Pendant la guerre de Trente Ans (1618-1648), l'Alsace servit de champ de bataille aux armées impériales, suédoises, weimariennes et françaises. Dr Bernd Warlich has edited four diaries of the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648). [68] In these battles, Gustavus utilized, among other things, the well-trained Finnish light cavalrymen Hakkapeliitta, which were excelled in sudden and savage attacks, raiding and reconnaissance. [52], Many of Christian's German allies, such as Hesse-Kassel and Saxony, had little interest in replacing Imperial domination for Danish, while few of the subsidies agreed in the Treaty of the Hague were ever paid. Proche de Belgrade, la Russie a mis en 2015 son veto à la résolution de l’ONU qualifiant le massacre de génocide. [79] Mazarin began seeking a negotiated peace; 25 years of constant war had devastated the countryside, forcing armies to spend more time foraging than fighting, and drastically reducing their ability to sustain campaigns. Ferdinand accepted the supremacy of the Imperial Diet and legal institutions, reconfirmed the Augsburg settlement, and recognised Calvinism as a third religion. Pour les catholiques de l'époque, elle était la manifestation de la colère divine. However, the rebels soon found the new French administration differed little from the old, turning the war into a three-sided contest between the Franco-Catalan elite, the rural peasantry, and the Spanish. [63], Expectations of widespread support proved unrealistic; by the end of 1630, the only new Swedish ally was Magdeburg, which was besieged by Tilly. La révolte des Dounganes est avant tout une guerre religieuse qui eu lieu en Chine entre 1862 et 1877. [88], France and Savoy made peace in the April 1629 Treaty of Suza, which allowed French troops passage through Savoy, and recognised their control of Casale and Pinerolo. Partly a genuine desire to support his Protestant co-religionists, like Christian he also wanted to maximise his share of the Baltic trade that provided much of Sweden's income. [127], By laying the foundations of the modern nation state, Westphalia changed the relationship of subjects and their rulers. Then the predominant global power, the Spanish Empire included the Spanish Netherlands, much of Italy, the Philippines, and most of the Americas, while Austria remained focused on Central Europe. Ferdinand and his advisors were greatly concerned by the brutal nature of the Würzburg and Bamberg trials, fearing they would discredit the Counter-Reformation, and active persecution largely ended by 1630. [73], After invading the Spanish Netherlands in May 1635, the poorly equipped French army collapsed, suffering 17,000 casualties from disease and desertion. [130] Although the Franco-Spanish conflict continued until 1659 and Spain remained a global force for another two centuries, Westphalia allowed Louis XIV of France to complete the process of replacing her as the predominant European power. Le sac de Magdebourg est désigné en allemand sous le terme de « mariage de Magdebourg » et est censé décrire le mariage forcé entre l'Empereur et la Vierge de Magdebourg, qui est représentée sur le blason de la ville. [90] Combined with the diversion of Imperial resources caused by Swedish intervention in 1630, this led to the Treaty of Cherasco in June 1631. Frederick's son Charles Louis regained the Lower Palatinate and became the eighth Imperial elector, although Bavaria kept the Upper Palatinate and its electoral vote. During 1629, another 274 suspected witches were killed in the Bishopric of Eichstätt, plus another 50 in the adjacent Duchy of Palatinate-Neuburg. [58], Made over-confident by success, in March 1629 Ferdinand passed an Edict of Restitution, which required all lands taken from the Catholic church after 1555 to be returned. Their attribution by some to supernatural causes led to a series of Witch-hunts, beginning in Franconia in 1626 and quickly spreading to other parts of Germany, which were often exploited for political purposes. While this gave them seats in the Imperial Diet, it also brought them conflict with both Brandenburg-Prussia and Saxony, who were competitors in Pomerania. De 1618 à 1648, la guerre de Trente ans a mis le Saint Empire à feu et à sang. Although opposition to this act united all German princes regardless of religion, Maximilian of Bavaria was compromised by his acquisition of the Palatinate; while Protestants wanted Frederick restored and the position returned to that of 1618, the Catholic League argued only for pre-1627. Certaines durent depuis près de dix ans. [42] Since Frederick demanded full restitution of his lands and titles, which was incompatible with the Treaty of Munich, hopes of reaching a negotiated peace quickly evaporated. They included separation of the Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs, expansion of the French frontier into the Empire, and an end to Spanish military supremacy in Northern Europe. [79] The Madrid government quickly assembled an army of 26,000 men to crush the revolt, and on 23 January, they defeated the Catalans at Martorell. [106], The war has been described as one of the greatest medical catastrophes in history. Spain was now forced to resupply their armies in Flanders by sea, making them vulnerable to the Dutch navy. He began negotiations with Wallenstein, who despite his recent victories was concerned by the prospect of Swedish intervention, and thus anxious to make peace. Transylvania (until 1621)[1] Heilbronn League (1631–1635) [55] Von Arnim was forced to lift the siege on 4 August, but three weeks later, Christian suffered another defeat at Wolgast. [20], While Emperors were elected, since 1440 this had been a Habsburg, the largest single landowner within the Empire; their lands included the Archduchy of Austria, the Kingdom of Bohemia, and the Kingdom of Hungary, with over eight million subjects. [103], It has been argued the Peace established the principle known as Westphalian sovereignty, the idea of non-interference in domestic affairs by outside powers, although this has since been challenged. The situation was complicated by Savoy, which saw an opportunity to gain territory; in March 1629, the French stormed Savoyard positions in the Pas de Suse, lifted the siege of Casale and captured the strategic fortress of Pinerolo. [65], However, once again Richelieu provided the requisite support; in the 1631 Treaty of Bärwalde, he provided funds for the Heilbronn League, a Swedish-led coalition of German Protestant states, including Saxony and Brandenburg. When Ferdinand was elected king of Bohemia in 1617, he gained control of its electoral vote; however, his conservative Catholicism made him unpopular with the largely Protestant Bohemian nobility, who were also concerned at the erosion of their rights. The Palatinate was clearly lost; in March, James instructed Vere to surrender Frankenthal, while Tilly's victory over Christian of Brunswick at Stadtlohn in August completed military operations. By 1623, Spanish-Imperial forces controlled the Palatinate; backed by the Catholic League, Ferdinand stripped Frederick of his possessions and sent him into exile. La guerre de Trente Ans fut une suite de conflits armés qui mit l’Europe à sang de 1618 à 1648 . [87], French policy was to seek to disrupt this road wherever possible, either by attacking the Spanish-held Duchy of Milan, or by blocking the Alpine passes. [49], In the June 1624 Treaty of Compiègne, France subsidised the Dutch war against Spain for a minimum of three years. Although retaken in 1625, a second fleet established Dutch Brazil in 1630, which was then relinquished in 1654. The 1555 Peace of Augsburg was intended to end conflict between German Protestants and Catholics by establishing the principle of cuius regio, eius religio. (history documentary)", "The 30 Years' War (1618–48) and the Second Defenestration of Prague – Professor Peter Wilson", Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution, Dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary, Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart, Persecutions of the Catholic Church and Pius XII, Pope Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, International Alliance of Catholic Knights, Rise of the Evangelical Church in Latin America, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Thirty_Years%27_War&oldid=995360779, 17th-century military history of the Kingdom of England, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from June 2016, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with KULTURNAV identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The Thirty Years' War is briefly referenced in the survival horror game. Elle a toujours une résonance particulière puisque la résurgence actuelle des guerres religieuses semble faire parfois mentir les règles de la géopolitique classique. This made it easier to levy national armies of significant size, loyal to their state and its leader; one lesson learned from Wallenstein and the Swedish invasion was the need for their own permanent armies, and Germany as a whole became a far more militarised society. The first period from 1618 to 1635 was a struggle within the Holy Roman Empire, fought between Emperor Ferdinand II and his internal opponents, with external powers playing a supportive role. Une guerre, à l'époque où la Lorraine était un duché indépendant de la France . Habsburg pre-eminence in Europe curtailed, Anti-Imperial alliance: In addition, Lutherans could keep lands or property taken from the Catholic Church since the 1552 Peace of Passau. Rwanda 1990 – 2020 : La guerre de trente ans. [21], Before Augsburg, unity of religion compensated for lack of strong central authority; once removed, it presented opportunities for those who sought to further weaken it. Anger at such tactics and his growing power came to a head in early 1628 when Ferdinand deposed the hereditary Duke of Mecklenburg, and appointed Wallenstein in his place. Unlike French gains which were incorporated into France, Swedish territories remained part of the Empire, and they became members of the Lower and Upper Saxon kreis. [118], Contemporaries spoke of a 'frenzy of despair' as people sought to make sense of the turmoil and hardship unleashed by the war. This threatened both Lutherans and Calvinists, paralysed the Diet and removed the perception of Imperial neutrality. Swedish intervention in the Thirty Years' War, La vida y hechos de Estebanillo González, hombre de buen humor, compuesta por él mismo, Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen, "The French Army of the Thirty Years' War: Introduction and Maison du Roi", "Review Article: Spain and the Netherlands in the 17th Century", "Military developments in the Thirty Years War", "Lecture 6: Europe in the Age of Religious Wars, 1560–1715", "German 'witch' declared innocent after 385 years", "The Battle of Wittstock 1636: Conflicting Reports on a Swedish Victory in Germany", "The Socio-Economic Relations of Warfare and the Military Mortality Crises of the Thirty Years' War", "Real Wages and the Origins of Modern Economic Growth in Germany, 16th to 19th Centuries", "The Long-term Impact of the Thirty Years War: What Grain Price Data Reveal", "The Origins of the Thirty Years War and the Structure of European Politics", http://www.mdsz.thulb.uni-jena.de/sz/index.php, Project "Peace of Westphalia" (among others with Essay Volumes of the 26th Exhibition of the Council of Europe "1648: War and Peace in Europe", 1998/99), BBC Radio4 documentary – The Invention of Germany: The Thirty Years' War and Magdeburg, - Sovereignty, International Relations, and the Westphalian Myth, "The Thirty Years' War - how was peace achieved?